Project files: A smaller mains controller…

What is it?
As mentioned a few weeks ago I’ve recently built another control board for switching a mains transformer with a low-voltage (latching) switch. This in a slightly different form factor so that if your application requires it, the board can be stacked with a matching standby-PSU and mains splitter and/or my passive softstart board. It is possible (just) to stack all three boards on top of each other in a 2U/80mm high enclosure or just two boards in a 50mm tall enclosure.

You can decide which standby voltage should be used by choosing the right relay in resistor values and in addition to using a latching switch for engaging the relay, you can also use a DC-voltage between app. 3-30V as the trigger. This input is isolated via an optocoupler and the trigger circuit only requires app. 15mA from the triggering device.

The matching standby PSU board uses the (by now) well-known IRM AC-DC power modules from Mean Well. There are two versions, one for the 3W module which is 100% outline-compatible with the control board and a version for the 5-10W modules where some of the connectors had to be shifted but the mounting holes still fit. The PSU board also provides a splitter-function to give two mains outputs.

How big are the boards?
All the boards are 2” x 2” (app. 51 x 51 mm) – the original theslowdiyer industry standard ™ 😀

What is the status of the boards?
These boards are v1.0 and they all work as expected.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
No.

Anything else I need to know?

  • The switch must be a latching type (meaning it stays in either on or off positions) and to turn the relay on you connect the switch so that the + voltage is connected to the switch pin. This turns on a transistor which switches the relay on.
  • The relay is rated for 5A inductive loads, so should be good for transformers up to around 1000VA at 230VAC (to give a bit of safety margin).
  • The optocoupler on the trigger input is fed from a constant-current source (CCS) made from an LM317L voltage regulator. If I was designing a commercial product this would probably be a sacking offence because it’s much more expensive than the alternatives, but for our purposes it works quite well 🙂
  • There are two LEDs on the control board, one to indicate the board is powered and one to indicate the relay is on.
  • The “ext” output is intended for us if you want to feed the unswitched standby voltage to some other circuit. There’s space for a bigger resistor here if you need to drop voltage for e.g. LEDs, but you can also jumper the resistor to just get the raw voltage (or leave the output if you don’t need it).
  • The mains connectors on the standby-PSU are marked as inputs and outputs, but in reality it doesn’t matter what you use as inputs and outputs.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Remember that these boards use mains voltage. Be careful when mounting and handling them!

Project files: INA217 Microphone Preamp

What is it?
Board files for my INA217-based microphone preamp and the matching PSU as shown here. The design is meant to be “configurable” with three different gain options and phantom power selectable via jumpers. The amp also has a full complement of protection features. The matching PSU has three rails via two small onboard transformers for a compact “all-in-one” solution.

How big are the boards?
The amp board measures 3.1” x 1.9” (app. 79 x 48 mm.) and the PSU board measures 3.95” x 2.7” (app. 100 x 69 mm).

What is the status of the boards?
The amp board is version 2.1. Version 2.0 was my update of the original design as showcased in the previous blog post (link) and 2.1 adds a few minor tweaks including an LED to indicate directly on the amp board if phantom power is on or off.
The PSU board is version 2.1 as well for much the same reasons (although the v2.1 “tweaks” consisted mostly of fixing a couple of fairly serious mistakes in component labelling 😀 )

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
Not really hard-to-find as such, but still worthy of some attention 🙂

  • The regulator for the phantom supply regulator must be a LM317HV type which allows for a greater in/out differential. You can use the standard version as well, but a short will then kill the regulator.
  • As for the INA217: I am not sure if there are fakes about, but buy from reputable sources just in case. Anything in an 8-pin DIP is an easy target for fakes really.

Anything else I need to know?

  • This board adds nearly all the bells and whistles described in this paper from THAT corp on instrumentation amp IC-based microphone preamps. These extra components for short-circuit and EMI-protection are optional, but definitely recommended.
  • The board has a Neutrik A-series Combo-jack onboard which is very practical and versatile. Unfortunately it means that if you use the TRS it shorts the phantom voltage to ground if it is plugged/unplugged while the amp is on. Protection features have been added, but this scenario is best avoided so only (dis)connect the TRS while the amp is off.
  • See the INA217 datasheet for gain calculations. While you can add a switch to select between the different gain settings, doing so may add quite a lot of noise so it’s not recommended.
  • Voltages for transformers: The two transformers will have to be 2×12-15V and 2x18V respectively. They are usually single-primary, so choose the ones that you need. Note that with transformers in this form factor you will not be able to deliver more power than is required for a single mic amp. If you need a triple PSU that can supply more than one amp board, this design should work just fine (with external transformers.
  • Replacements for the INA217 are mainly the THAT1510/1512, but there are some differences so I am honestly not sure if they are a drop-in replacement. Refer to the files under “related information” if you want to check for yourself.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Before you start I strongly suggest you read through the INA217 datasheet. Please also refer to the aforementioned paper from THAT on this type of microphone preamps, this THAT design note and the datasheet for the THAT1510/THAT1512 ICs.

Project files: Little helpers – Alps PCBs III

What is it?
These are “little helper” boards for the Alps RK168xx series of motorised potentiometers. These pots are not quite as good quality as the standard Alps “Blue Velvet” RK27-series, but they are cheaper and smaller. They are also used in many commercial products, so they should work fine for many diy projects. The motor also means that the pots have a nice mechanical feel to them 🙂
There are two board versions, a 2-channel (for stereo with the RK16812) and a 4-channel (for balanced amps with the RK16814). Alps also makes a six-channel version of the pot and adjusting the footprint to fit these should be relatively easy, but I have no need for these now so I couldn’t be bothered 🙂

How big are the boards?
Both boards measure 1.85″ x 2.0″ (app. 47 x 51 mm) and the rear mounting holes are in the same place on both boards.

What is the status of the boards?
Both are version 1.0 since they are exactly as my prototypes.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
Mostly there’s only one real part on the board and that is the pot itself, so not really 😀

Anything else I need to know?

  • These are “preamp” style boards have a ground plane and a ground pad that can be used if you grounding scheme requires the shaft of the pot to be grounded. Use a piece of wire connected from the ground pad to either one of the screws on the back of the pot or soldered to a ring terminal wedged between the pot and the chassis. You can also use the grounding pad on the bottom instead.
  • The boards can also be used to make separate, passive preamps. In this case, a 10k potentiometer should be used.
  • The screw clamps are standard 5mm pin spacing types, but of course it is possible to solder bare wires to the boards as well.
  • The basic Eagle footprint for the RK168 was one I found in a diyaudio-thread, so I can’t take credit for that. All I have done is modify it to match the Quad-version as well.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

As usual, please remember to consult the manufacturer’s datasheet as well.

Project files: STEPS clone PSU

What is it?
The board for my “STEPS-clone” single-rail linear PSU as described here. This PSU is suitable for low-power streamers, DACs, headphone amps etc. that run on a single DC-voltage rail and require less than app. 15W maximum. This isn’t really a 100% clone of the original STEPS supply (see here), but I’ve drawn quite a bit of inspiration from the STEPS so I think the credit is well-deserved anyway 🙂

Note that the transformer primary connections are hardwired on the board, so there are separate 115V and a 230V versions of the board files.

How big are the boards?
The board measures 3.95” x 4.7” (app. 100 x 119 mm)

What is the status of the boards?
The published board files are for version 1.0 which is the version I have prototyped. There are a few minor changes I could do, but it’s mostly cosmetic and it might be a while before I get to it anyway so I have decided to publish this version.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
If you can order from Mouser, then nothing here is hard-to find. If you can’t, then the only thing that might be difficult to substitute is the Murata common-mode choke and that is optional anyway 🙂

Anything else I need to know?

  • The original idea was that the board should be able to slide into a eurocard-sized enclosure (that’s also the reason for the two extra mounting holes). However, in practice this isn’t possible as the primary pins of the transformer are way too close to the enclosure walls to make this safe. My recommended enclosure is the GX1xx-types from modushop, but there are many other options. If you have more devices, you can of course use larger enclosures to hold multiple PSUs.
  • The transformer secondaries are in parallel, so with the standard Talema range from 7VAC to 22VAC, it should be possible to make the STEPS with outputs from around 3-25VDC.
  • The 2-pin header near the output can be used to connect a volt meter to display the output voltage (or it can be used for something else – your choice! :D).
  • The solder pads on the board can be used either as test points or to tap the AC or unregulated DC-voltage from the board to another PSU board for an AUX-voltage of some sort (additional circuit, trigger voltage etc.). Remember to watch the total load on the transformer and the maximum heat dissipation in all regulators.
  • You can use my spreadsheet here to calculate the adjustment resistors for various output voltages. This will show you the upper/lower limit voltages if you use a trimpot for variable output, and also the power dissipation in the adjustment resistors which you need to be careful with at higher outputs.
  • The only really tricky bit of this circuit is (potentially) managing heat dissipation if your load draws a lot of power on a continuous basis. You’ll have to balance the heat dissipation in the regulator and the pi-filter resistors, while still keeping the voltage to the regulator high enough so that it doesn’t drop out – even if the mains voltage varies a bit. A little tip can be that if your load device isn’t sensitive to output voltage, then turning up the output by app. 0.5-1V will shift some heat away from the regulator. Be sure that you stay within the specs of whatever you are connecting to the PSU at all times of course!
  • As usual for these circuits, you can use both standard and LDO (low-drop regulators). The low-drop types are normally not “better”, but can be a bit less tolerant of circuitry and load conditions so it’s actually better to stick with standard LM317 unless you have a good reason to use an LDO.
  • The only time it really makes sense to use a 3A rated regulator (LM350 or Lx1085 types) would be if your PSU is 5-7V output with a 25VA transformer. If your output voltage is higher or the transformer is smaller, the 1.5A+ current limit of a standard LM317 (or Lx1086) should be just fine.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
1) Read the original STEPS page linked above. Even if the circuit isn’t completely the same, there is still lots of great info about the LM317 type regulators and how to get the most of them.
2) Read the manufacturers datasheet for the regulator that you are working with. Pay specific attention to recommendations around output capacitance and bypassing of the adjust pin as there are some differences between regulator models and manufacturers here.

Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

 

Project files: LED tester

What is it?
The PCB files for my version of Håvard Skrodahls LED-tester as described here.

How big are the boards?
The board measures 2.0” x 1.6” (app. 51 x 41 mm.).

What is the status of the boards?
This is version 1.0 as everything (for once) worked the first time 🙂

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
None, really. The 16mm pots can be bought from ebay and everything else you should be able to get from multiple different sources. If possible, I would suggest using a stereo 5k-10k pot and the fully-isolated version of the LM317. The former gives the best adjustment range and the latter helps protect against mishaps with flying test leads 😀

Anything else I need to know?

  • For information about how the circuit works, read the hackaday-post linked above.
  • Output current can be calculated as 1.25V/Rtot. For max. current Rtot = R1 and for min. current the value is Rtot = R1 +  the pot value (with the decks in parallel if you are using a stereo pot obviously)
  • There is a difference between Lin/Log pot as described in the build article, so you’ll have to decide up front which adjustment profile fits you best (or keep the pot offboard so you can change – or just build two boards 🙂 ).
  • If you want to use the “high-current” mode, populate R2 as well and short the jumper. Remember that power dissipation in both the resistor and the LM317 regulator increases with higher current. The calculations for min and max current above have to be adjusted to reflect the fact that R1 and R2 are in parallel.
  • The connection for the ammeter is required as it is in series with the LED being tested. If you don’t want the ammeter, bridge If+ and If- connections as shown in the picture. The connection for the voltmeter is optional.  Note that I have tried using a cheap LED meter from ebay for the ammeter and I had some problems with it, whereas if i connect my normal multimeters everything works fine – YMMV.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Be sure to read the original post for the exact circuit description, information and tips.

Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Project files: The last of its kind…

…for a while at least 😀

What is it?
The last (and smallest) version of my EL2k buffered headphone amp using NOS Elantec 2008/2009 buffer ICs. This is the smallest version designed for 1.5″ heat sink profiles as described here. The two other versions are of course also still available (here and here):

How big are the boards?
The board measures 3.95″ x 1.5″ (app. 100 x 38 mm.) and is obviously a mono amplifier channel.

What is the status of the boards?
I’ve called this board version 1.5 as it is a redesign. Apart from the redesign work described in a previous post, the circuit is identical to the other published files.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
Yes.

  • The EL2008/EL2009 buffers have been out of production for 10+ years. They can still be found and I don’t think you need to be especially concerned about fakes – there can’t be a lot of demand for these anymore – but of course no guarantees. The main risk is probably that instead of NOS parts that you get used parts that have been pulled from old equipment. This is annoying, but should be OK.
  • The heat sink profile is the same as the original, Fischer SK68, in 37mm length. Easy to get in Europe, but I’m not sure about elsewhere.

Anything else I need to know?

  • I’ve had to mount the buffers on the side of the heat sink that has an M2.5 slot and not an M3-slot. This isn’t a problem as such because there’s no need to isolate the tab, you’ll have to remember to buy M2.5 screws for mounting 😀
  • Otherwise this is a bog-standard buffered opamp circuit and there isn’t much that can go wrong 🙂

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Be sure to read the original posts for additional information and tips.

Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Project files: IRM Switching PSUs

What is it?
Since I first discovered the IRM-series of compact switching supplies from Mean Well I’ve grown quite fond of them. They are compact, cheap and very easy to implement so they are perfect for everywhere an “aux-voltage” is required to power non-critical circuitry. Through the different applications I’ve found for these I have managed to build up a full series of boards suitable for the IRMs.

While some of the boards can be (and are intended to be) used for “serious” stuff (to be shown later on), a very obvious application for most of these boards are as AUX-supplies for powering relays, displays, logic circuitry etc. where a bit more or a bit less ripple and noise are of no consequence, but where the compact size and low standby consumption is a real plus.

There are four board versions, suitable for the IRM modules in all versions from 3-30W output power (the 30W board is missing from the pictures as I couldn’t find the prototype when they were taken – sorry! 😀 ).

How big are the boards?

  • The 3W board measures 1.8” x 1.5” (app. 46 x 38 mm.)
  • The 5/10W board measures 1.2” x 2.65” (app. 31 x 67 mm.)
  • The 15/20W board measures 1.25” x 2.95” (app. 32 x 75 mm.)
  • The 30W board measures 1.6” x 3.6” (app. 41 x 92 mm.)

What is the status of the boards?
All of the board files are version 1.0 or higher. Some tweaks have been done after the initial protoypes for a few of them, mostly because of errors/issues with the IRM module footprints.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
No, none. Several places to get the IRM-modules them selves (Mouser, Reichelt, TME etc.) and everything else on the boards is more or less optional 😀

Anything else I need to know?

  • The modules have worse specs for ripple and noise than most linear regulators, but obviously the switching frequency is quite high (66-100 kHz depending on model), which means that passive filtering like an LC or a CRC (“pi”) filter would be an ideal way of reducing the output noise. I have a couple of examples for that which I might show later.
  • I haven’t been able to find a spec for how much capacitance the modules will tolerate on the output, but it probably should not be overdone.
  • Remember that obviously one side of the board carries mains voltage, so take the necessary precautions when working with them.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Project files: VFET PSU

What is it?
In response to a reader request, the project files for my V-FET PSU board shown here. Of course, this will also work for any other class A design you might think of, as it is a fairly standard CC-R-C configuration with onboard rectifiers and space for three 35mm snap-in capacitors per rail. On typical class A voltages that means you’ll be able to use capacitors in the 22-33mF range and the the onboard rectifiers are 15-25A plastic SIP types, which should be just fine for most applications.

Input and output connections are via FAST-ON tabs and there are two sets of output connections. Since we’re paying for the copper on the boards anyway, I’ve tried to keep as much of it as possible  with a top-side ground plane and the supply rails on the bottom. 🙂

How big are the boards?
The board measures 3.1” x 6.675” (app. 78 x 170 mm).

What is the status of the boards?
Since the prototypes worked fine I haven’t made any changes and the board is therefore version 1.0.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
Nothing worth worrying about really. The only possible exception is only really the rectifier which is in a small GBU-package. However, Mouser has them up to 25A (p/n 750-GBU2510-G) and they are available from many other sources in 10-15A variants as well.

Anything else I need to know?

  • If you want to use off-board bridges, bridge the AC and the DC-connections with as thick a wire as you can get through the holes. That should allow you to use offboard metal-cased rectifiers up to 50A. Since the average current draw of most class A amps is quite low and the surge ratings aren’t that different between package types I don’t see the need to use anything else than the plastic ones, but by all means complicate matters with offboard bridges if you must 😀
  • The four series resistors can be 3-5W types in parallel which should be plenty, even if you want to burn off a bit of voltage in them.
  • The (optional) 3W bleeder resistor discharges the two first capacitors while the LEDs will discharge the last ones. The series resistor for the LED can be a 1/2W or 1W type.
  • Last, but not least: Electrolytic capacitors in this sort of size aren’t to be trifled with, so make sure you mount them correctly and test the board properly before mounting it in your amplifier chassis.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

vfetpsupcb-2

Project files: The (modified) EL2k headamp

What is it?
The board files for the new “medium-sized” version of the EL2k buffer/pre as shown a few weeks ago. The smaller 37mm board version will follow in a while.

How big are the boards?
The board measures 3.95″ x 2.0″ (app. 100 x 51 mm.) and is obviously a mono amplifier channel.

What is the status of the boards?
I’ve called this board version 1.5. Apart from the redesign work described in the last post, the circuit is identical to the originally published v1.1 files.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
Yes.

  • The EL2008/EL2009 buffers have been out of production for 10+ years. They can still be found and I don’t think you need to be especially concerned about fakes – there can’t be a lot of demand for these anymore – but of course no guarantees. The main risk is probably that instead of NOS parts that you get used parts that have been pulled from old equipment. This is annoying, but should be OK.
  • The heat sink profile is the same as the original, Fischer SK68, in 50mm length. Easy to get in Europe, but I’m not sure about elsewhere.

Anything else I need to know?

  • I’ve had to mount the buffers on the side of the heat sink that has an M2.5 slot and not an M3-slot. This isn’t a problem as such because there’s no need to isolate the tab, but some swearing will likely ensue when you sit there on Sunday afternoon and realise you don’t have any M2.5 screws to hand 😀
  • Otherwise this is a bog-standard buffered opamp circuit and there isn’t much that can go wrong 🙂

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Be sure to read the original posts for additional information and tips. You should be able to reuse the linked BoM as well.

Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Project files: THAT1646 in stereo…

What is it?
A stereo version of my THAT1646 balanced converter/preamp shown here. I wanted to build a small controller/pre for some active monitors and while the stacked mono boards were probably a good idea in princple, I decided to resurrect the stereo layout instead 🙂

How big are the boards?
The board measure 2.7″ x 1.9″ (app. 69 x 48 mm.).

What is the status of the boards?
There are two board versions which differ only slightly. One is 100% through-hole and basically a stereo version of the mono-board shown earlier. The other has the R4 gain resistor replaced with a 1206 SMD type and mounted on the top of the board (under the IC socket). This means the feedback loop area is much smaller and the routing is a bit neater. Both boards are otherwise the same size and electrically identical. If you want to change the gain after building the through-hole version is probably easier to work with, but otherwise the SMD-version should be the best design. Both boards are labelled as version 1.0 although I’ve only prototyped the SMD-version in stereo.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
As usual, not much. Maybe the THAT IC itself. Mouser has it though, so that should work for most people I guess.

Anything else I need to know?
A few things:

  • Gain: You can tweak the gain of the circuit as you wish using the resistors for the pampas, but remember that the THAT1646 should add 6dB gain on its own when you go from SE to BAL.
  • Opamp selection: You should be able to use pretty much any single opamp here. if you don’t have a favourite already I’d once again recommend that you start with either the OPA134 or the LME49710 and then experiment from there.
  • SMD resistor: If you are using the board version with the SMD gain resistor, remember to solder R4 on the board before you fit the IC sockets (otherwise some swearing may ensue when you discover it… :D)
  • BW limiting capacitors: There is no space on the board for BW-limiting capacitors for the opamp. Not sure why really, but with the opamp only driving a very short trace with a fixed load at the end (the THAT1646) I felt quite sure most opamps will behave. If not, soldering some small ceramics on the bottom of the board should be easy 🙂

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
As usual, RTFD! (= read the f’ing datasheets :D)

Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.