Project files: The “MoFo” power follower

I did this version of the “MoFo”-design a while ago and also mentioned it briefly (here) but didn’t manage to complete it or even test the boards. In the mean time the “official” boards have become available from the diyaudio store, but since I now finally got round to testing my boards I still thought I’d share my version as well.

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Project files: The RJM Emerald RIAA

Last week I showed my version of the “Emerald” RIAA design by Richard J. Murdey. The Emerald is a neat little design: It has switchable gain and load for MM/MC, if you use good components it’s got a very accurate RIAA-curve, and of course with just two opamps per channel as the active devices, it’s very easy to build.

Richard has graciously shared the Eagle-files for his version and so it seems only right that I do the same here. Richard is also selling boards from his website, so if you want something that is proven to be working and comes with support then I suggest you buy your boards from him instead.

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Project files: The Kuartlotron Buffer

Sometimes projects that have been on hold for a long time can restart with just a tiny nudge. A while ago I built (and showed) a clone of the Kuartlotron buffers. My original prototypes had one obvious mistake (an incorrectly connected Q3) which I fixed, but I still couldn’t properly zero the offset as described. I left the project, did nothing about it and then a few days ago by accident went back into the discussion thread on diyaudio. Here there was a single post discussing exactly that issue and a very short response from Keantoken (the “inventor”) that offset had to be zeroed with the input open. This is not what you normally do so I didn’t think about it after building my boards, but that small clue was enough for me to go back to the prototype boards and confirm they were OK. With the problem fixed I can finally share the project files here 🙂

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Project files: PA100 parallel gainclone

What is it?
Board files for my “PA100” parallel chip amp with the LM3886 first presented here.

I’ve used the app. note version of the circuit which is non-inverting and uses low-tolerance components to minimise offset between the two ICs. There is also the Jeff Rowland-derived inverting circuit that is normally employed as a PA150/BPA300 configuration with three ICs per board.

I’ve mosty stuck to the datasheet circuit, but in some areas I have drawn inspiration from Tom Christensens article on the LM3886 IC. I’ve used SMT-components where I believe it makes sense to get a tight layout, but mostly its nice and diy-friendly leaded parts 🙂

How big are the boards?
The board measures 3.9” x 2.4” (app. 99 x 61 mm).

What is the status of the boards?
The files are for board version 1.1. I’ve made the following changes compared to the v1.0 prototype.

  • Mute capacitor footprint enlarged.
  • Mute resistor moved to the center of the board to make space for the larger capacitor.
  • Footprint for the LM3886 changed as the holes were very too small.
  • Made a small space between the large reservoir capacitors so they don’t touch each other.

Note that I haven’t tested the v1.1 (yet – will include them with my next PCB order) but I don’t expect any adverse effects of these changes.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
Not really, but the recommended resistors are lower tolerance than what is common (the 0805 resistors are 0.1% and the 0R1/3W output resistors are 1%). Mouser has them all and there should be plenty of other sources. The amp will work with standard tolerances (1% for the SMTs, 5% for the outputs) but if you’re unlucky with the tolerances then performance will suffer a bit (higher DC-offset on the output and higher idle dissipation in the ICs). The recommended parts are not much more expensive so I definitely recommend you stick to them.

Anything else I need to know?

  • The gain setting resistors (the SMD-ones) should be 0.1% tolerance for best performance (see above).
  • Similarly, the load-sharing resistors on the output should be 1% tolerance for best performance (see above).
  • The power LED on the board is only between the negative supply and ground, so it is not a 100% indication that everything is OK.
  • The board obviously works with both versions of the LM3886, but I recommend the isolated (TF) version because it’s easier to mount.
  • Decoupling: My decoupling scheme is somewhere between the datasheet recommendation and TomChrs decoupling scheme. The topside parts are intended to be 100nF MKT or X7R MLCCs which is more or less what the data sheet specifies, but on the bottom there are pads for 1206/1210 SMD caps which you can fill with 4u7-10uF X7R MLCCs. You can also use the SMD pads for 100nF MLCCs and then mount electrolytic on top, but there isn’t much space so be a bit careful.
  • The board should be fed from a DC power supply, linear or switching. The large reservoir caps can be as big as you like, but as my prototype boards are intended to be powered by an SMPS (which is sensitive to capacitive loading) I’ve used fairly small capacitors. If you use a linear supply by all means use bigger capacitors.
  • Bridging: You can bridge two boards to create a BPA200 amplifier, but remember a) to lower the supply voltage to around +/-28VDC and b) that you need either a fully-balanced source/preamp or you need to invert the phase using a balanced line driver such as a DRV134/THAT1646 or or fully-differential amplifier of some sort.
  • Mechanics: The C-to-C spacing between the ICs is 1.5” (38 mm).

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

You can find additional information about the LM3886 amplifiers in the data sheet, the AN-1192 appnote linked above and several other resources – check them all out 🙂

Project files: Line Attenuators

What is it?
If you are using a preamp with gain you may have problems with only using a fraction of the available range on your volume control which is very annoying. The problem is usually caused by too much gain and/or an incorrect gain structure. If it is not possible to reduce the gain of one or more of the amplifiers in the chain, a solution can be to use inline attenuators from e.g. Rothwell Audio instead. These are quite expensive though, and they only come in predefined attenuation levels so for testing purposes a DIY-option such as I am presenting here might be better.

The attenuator is built on a small board with RCA sockets for input and output, as well as an option for fitting two parallel resistors on the output side. The gives two (or even three) selectable attenuation values. The selection can be either by jumpers or even via a switch to make the boards suitable for testing etc.

How big are the boards?
The board measures 1.75″ by 0.9″ (app. 44 x 23 mm) – plus of course the off-board part of the connectors.

What is the status of the boards?
The board is in v1.0, meaning it has been tested and confirmed working.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
The RCA sockets are clones of Vampire RCAs. They are normally the best board-mounted RCAs I know of and available on ebay. If you don’t want to use connectors or can’t find them, just connect the signal via a 0.1” header (or a JST XH/Molex KK connector) instead.

Anything else I need to know?

  • Important: The reason that Rothwells are built into the RCA-plug is to keep the signal path short and especially the load capacitance on the output side as low as possible. Use the shortest possible cables on the output of these to avoid the cables inducing an RF-rolloff.
  • The resistor values are quite important and should ideally be matched to the source and load impedance. I’ve used this thread (post #6) as a starting point but it’s worth reading up on the theory behind the operation as there are a few trade-offs involved.
  • The center-to-center spacing of the RCAs is 1.1″ (28mm)

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Project files: Simple power-on delay (with 555 IC)

As mentioned in a couple of previous post I have been looking for a simple delay circuit for headphone amps for a while. The original trigger was the Borbely amp project, but many other circuits benefit from a delay on the output to protect speakers and headphones against turn-on and turn-off transients. My (renewed) search led me to this page which has a great circuit. However, the board also has an onboard headphone jack which I don’t want, so roll out Eagle to do another layout 🙂

I already have made an ATtiny-based delay board that could be used but sometimes you want the bulletproof reliability of a design that doesn’t contain any software 😀 And honestly, using a microcontroller for a simple delay circuit is a bit unnecessary – a standard 555 is just fine.

What is it?
A simple power-on delay circuit that can be used to mute headphone outs, speaker outs or similar to protect against DC transients and also potentially e.g as a B+ delay for tube amps and so on. The board is based on the 555 timer IC in monostable mode.

There are two board versions, one with an onboard relay for headphones and line level signals, and one without a relay for use in other applications and for speakers etc. that require high-power relays. The two boards are identical apart from the size (of course) and the fact that the high-power version has bigger voltage regulator and a bigger protection diode because the relay current may exceed the 100mA that the 78Lxx regulator on the low-power board can supply.

The design has two intentional limitations: One is that the regulator powers the 555 directly, meaning you are in practice limited to using 5V-12V relays. The 555 can handle from 3-18V, but relays are mostly 5V and 12V so normally that’s your choice. However, for most of the intended applications this is just fine and the onboard voltage regulator increases the flexibility a bit (and it can be omitted). The other limitation is that there is only one fixed resistor to set the delay time, so no way to shorten it for testing. However, given the intended application I think that should be OK.

How big are the boards?
The no-relay board measures 1.25″ x 1.75″ (app. 32 x 44.5 mm) and the relay-version is a little longer at 1.25″ x 2.45″ (app. 32 x 62 mm)

What is the status of the boards?
Both boards are v1.0. I haven’t tried the no-relay version yet (prototype boards are in the mail), but the circuits are so close to each other that I am fully confident it will work.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
No.

Anything else I need to know?

  • The equation for the delay time is 1.1*Rt*Ct, meaning that a capacitor of 22uF and a resistor of 470k gives a nominal delay of app. 11 seconds (not accounting for component tolerances). If you are unsure about the exact times you need/want, size up the capacitor to the next larger size. Partly because tolerances and leakages in the capacitor may reduce the time and partly because it’s always easier to parallel a second resistor on the back of the board to get a lower value 🙂
  • The header marked “MT” forces the output into mute by simply disconnecting power to the relay. You can skip this feature by simply soldering a bridge across the pads or you can use it for a mute switch. The intention is to have a physical mute switch here, but it can actually also be an electrical switch (transistor) from another circuit. This makes it possible to keep the delay function separated, but still disconnect the output in case of a fault.
  • If you are building the no-relay board an isolated 78xx regulator is recommended to protect against unintentional shorts. If you draw a lot of power (with big speaker relays) or if you use the regulator to drop a lot of voltage, a small piece of aluminium as a heat sink would be required. If you don’t need the regulator because you already have a suitable regulated voltage available, just bridge the input and output pins.
  • If for whatever reason, you need the opposite function of this board, namely that the relay is on during the delay period and then it turns off, then you can simply replace the PNP transistor with an NPN-type with the same pinout (such as a BC54x). Don’t bother asking how I found out that this actually works quite well… 😉

Downloads:
Download design files here (EDIT 11th May 2018: File updated to v1.0a to include a BoM-file as well)

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Project files: PassHP headphone amp

What is it?
It’s the project files for the PassHP headphone amplifier from last week’s post and judging by the number of views since then they are eagerly awaited 😀
As mentioned last time, this design is a clone of the one from here and my version consists of a mono amplifier board and a stereo PSU board instead of the original “all-in-one” design.

How big are the boards?
The amplifier boards measure 2.95” x 3.0” (app. 75 x 76 mm.) and the PSU board measures 2.0” x 5.05” (app. 51 x 128 mm.).

What is the status of the boards?
Both boards are in version 1.0 as the prototype seems to work well and I couldn’t be bothered to make any cosmetic changes 😉

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
Well, the recommended 2SJ313/2SK2013 output transistors are a bit hard to find, but there are plenty of substitutes available. This is a fairly simple design, so otherwise no problems.

Anything else I need to know?

  • Resistors: I’ve used RN60-type resistors which are rated 0.5W, but that probably isn’t necessary – at least not for all the positions.
  • Heatsinks: The heat sink profile is the one Fischer calls SK104 but there are many substitutes. The power dissipation isn’t great so even the small 25mm high version should suffice, but if you want to use bigger ones for cosmetic reasons that should be just fine 🙂
  • Transistors: I’ve used 2SJ313/2SK2013 output devices because I had them, but if you don’t then I recommend using IRF610/9610 or one of the other substitutes mentioned in the diyaudio build thread. The 2SJ/2SK pairs are now either very expensive or very fake (and sometimes even both!), so using parts that are still in production should be safer.
  • Optocoupler: In theory this is also substitutable for something else, but in all honesty I don’t know exactly how the optical bias-system works so it’s probably best to stick with the standard 4N35.
  • Gain: The default gain is app. 6 but that can be lowered or raised by tweaking the value of R4. In theory you should recalculate the BW-limiting capacitor across the resistor if you change the value, but in practice you’ll probably be fine unless you make major changes. My prototype version has a gain of 3 (R4 = 2k) and I haven’t observed any problems.
  • Opamp: My version uses a single-channel opamp which gives a bit more choice. Start out with something like the OPA604, OPA134 or LME49710 and then experiment from there if you want to change the sound.
    Most opamps have a max. supply voltage of +/-15V so as a starting point I’d recommend this as the supply voltage. If you want more voltage swing use the OPA604 which is good up to +/-22V.
  • PSU voltage adjustment: Just as in the original you can use LEDs to raise the output voltage of the supply above the regulator voltage (although I’ve ditched the resistor option). Using 7×15-regulators and green/red LEDs should give you around 17V output whereas using 7×18-regulators and LEDs should bump that to app. 20V. If you just want the regulator voltage as the output, remember to jumper across the LED pins and omit the capacitor.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
You really should chew your way through the diyaudio-thread for information about the amplifier. As mentioned this version was mostly because I did not like the original form factor. If you just want a functioning amplifier then I strongly recommend that you buy one of the “real” boards from Wayne Colburn via DIYaudio (or wait a few weeks for when the boards show up in the diyaudio store).

Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Project files: A smaller mains controller…

What is it?
As mentioned a few weeks ago I’ve recently built another control board for switching a mains transformer with a low-voltage (latching) switch. This in a slightly different form factor so that if your application requires it, the board can be stacked with a matching standby-PSU and mains splitter and/or my passive softstart board. It is possible (just) to stack all three boards on top of each other in a 2U/80mm high enclosure or just two boards in a 50mm tall enclosure.

You can decide which standby voltage should be used by choosing the right relay in resistor values and in addition to using a latching switch for engaging the relay, you can also use a DC-voltage between app. 3-30V as the trigger. This input is isolated via an optocoupler and the trigger circuit only requires app. 15mA from the triggering device.

The matching standby PSU board uses the (by now) well-known IRM AC-DC power modules from Mean Well. There are two versions, one for the 3W module which is 100% outline-compatible with the control board and a version for the 5-10W modules where some of the connectors had to be shifted but the mounting holes still fit. The PSU board also provides a splitter-function to give two mains outputs.

How big are the boards?
All the boards are 2” x 2” (app. 51 x 51 mm) – the original theslowdiyer industry standard ™ 😀

What is the status of the boards?
These boards are v1.0 and they all work as expected.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
No.

Anything else I need to know?

  • The switch must be a latching type (meaning it stays in either on or off positions) and to turn the relay on you connect the switch so that the + voltage is connected to the switch pin. This turns on a transistor which switches the relay on.
  • The relay is rated for 5A inductive loads, so should be good for transformers up to around 1000VA at 230VAC (to give a bit of safety margin).
  • The optocoupler on the trigger input is fed from a constant-current source (CCS) made from an LM317L voltage regulator. If I was designing a commercial product this would probably be a sacking offence because it’s much more expensive than the alternatives, but for our purposes it works quite well 🙂
  • There are two LEDs on the control board, one to indicate the board is powered and one to indicate the relay is on.
  • The “ext” output is intended for us if you want to feed the unswitched standby voltage to some other circuit. There’s space for a bigger resistor here if you need to drop voltage for e.g. LEDs, but you can also jumper the resistor to just get the raw voltage (or leave the output if you don’t need it).
  • The mains connectors on the standby-PSU are marked as inputs and outputs, but in reality it doesn’t matter what you use as inputs and outputs.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Remember that these boards use mains voltage. Be careful when mounting and handling them!

Project files: INA217 Microphone Preamp

What is it?
Board files for my INA217-based microphone preamp and the matching PSU as shown here. The design is meant to be “configurable” with three different gain options and phantom power selectable via jumpers. The amp also has a full complement of protection features. The matching PSU has three rails via two small onboard transformers for a compact “all-in-one” solution.

How big are the boards?
The amp board measures 3.1” x 1.9” (app. 79 x 48 mm.) and the PSU board measures 3.95” x 2.7” (app. 100 x 69 mm).

What is the status of the boards?
The amp board is version 2.1. Version 2.0 was my update of the original design as showcased in the previous blog post (link) and 2.1 adds a few minor tweaks including an LED to indicate directly on the amp board if phantom power is on or off.
The PSU board is version 2.1 as well for much the same reasons (although the v2.1 “tweaks” consisted mostly of fixing a couple of fairly serious mistakes in component labelling 😀 )

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
Not really hard-to-find as such, but still worthy of some attention 🙂

  • The regulator for the phantom supply regulator must be a LM317HV type which allows for a greater in/out differential. You can use the standard version as well, but a short will then kill the regulator.
  • As for the INA217: I am not sure if there are fakes about, but buy from reputable sources just in case. Anything in an 8-pin DIP is an easy target for fakes really.

Anything else I need to know?

  • This board adds nearly all the bells and whistles described in this paper from THAT corp on instrumentation amp IC-based microphone preamps. These extra components for short-circuit and EMI-protection are optional, but definitely recommended.
  • The board has a Neutrik A-series Combo-jack onboard which is very practical and versatile. Unfortunately it means that if you use the TRS it shorts the phantom voltage to ground if it is plugged/unplugged while the amp is on. Protection features have been added, but this scenario is best avoided so only (dis)connect the TRS while the amp is off.
  • See the INA217 datasheet for gain calculations. While you can add a switch to select between the different gain settings, doing so may add quite a lot of noise so it’s not recommended.
  • Voltages for transformers: The two transformers will have to be 2×12-15V and 2x18V respectively. They are usually single-primary, so choose the ones that you need. Note that with transformers in this form factor you will not be able to deliver more power than is required for a single mic amp. If you need a triple PSU that can supply more than one amp board, this design should work just fine (with external transformers.
  • Replacements for the INA217 are mainly the THAT1510/1512, but there are some differences so I am honestly not sure if they are a drop-in replacement. Refer to the files under “related information” if you want to check for yourself.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Before you start I strongly suggest you read through the INA217 datasheet. Please also refer to the aforementioned paper from THAT on this type of microphone preamps, this THAT design note and the datasheet for the THAT1510/THAT1512 ICs.

Project files: Little helpers – Alps PCBs III

What is it?
These are “little helper” boards for the Alps RK168xx series of motorised potentiometers. These pots are not quite as good quality as the standard Alps “Blue Velvet” RK27-series, but they are cheaper and smaller. They are also used in many commercial products, so they should work fine for many diy projects. The motor also means that the pots have a nice mechanical feel to them 🙂
There are two board versions, a 2-channel (for stereo with the RK16812) and a 4-channel (for balanced amps with the RK16814). Alps also makes a six-channel version of the pot and adjusting the footprint to fit these should be relatively easy, but I have no need for these now so I couldn’t be bothered 🙂

How big are the boards?
Both boards measure 1.85″ x 2.0″ (app. 47 x 51 mm) and the rear mounting holes are in the same place on both boards.

What is the status of the boards?
Both are version 1.0 since they are exactly as my prototypes.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
Mostly there’s only one real part on the board and that is the pot itself, so not really 😀

Anything else I need to know?

  • These are “preamp” style boards have a ground plane and a ground pad that can be used if you grounding scheme requires the shaft of the pot to be grounded. Use a piece of wire connected from the ground pad to either one of the screws on the back of the pot or soldered to a ring terminal wedged between the pot and the chassis. You can also use the grounding pad on the bottom instead.
  • The boards can also be used to make separate, passive preamps. In this case, a 10k potentiometer should be used.
  • The screw clamps are standard 5mm pin spacing types, but of course it is possible to solder bare wires to the boards as well.
  • The basic Eagle footprint for the RK168 was one I found in a diyaudio-thread, so I can’t take credit for that. All I have done is modify it to match the Quad-version as well.

Downloads:
Download design files here

Related information:
Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

As usual, please remember to consult the manufacturer’s datasheet as well.