Easter blues…?

Easter breaks are particularly long in Denmark and this year I’ve extended mine even further. Even though the changes this year are smaller than usual due to the corona-virus quarantine, not having to attend (online) meetings during the day does make a difference. Being stuck at home for a few weeks have also given me plenty opportunity to look at my pile of semi-finished projects and thinking I should get some of those finished 🙂

The main purpose of this year’s break was to do some non-audio related DIY around the house, but I still found time for some audio-stuff as well. Mostly I’ve turned projects from partially completed to a little bit more (but still partially) completed which doesn’t make for interesting pictures, but this progress has also meant being the able to order some missing parts (mostly panels and PCBs) and experimenting a little with some new designs as well. Hopefully, with a few more long weekends in sight, I should be able to complete some more stuff over the coming weeks.

A couple of things did make it to “fully completed” though: One is a balanced monitor controller based on the THAT1646 (first mentioned here) and the other is my pair of TK2050-based Helder Audio monoblocks that I started here. Not much to either of these to be honest, except that the last bit of wiring is usually what I end up spending the most time on. Both of these work well, but I don’t really have any imminent use for them. The TK2050 is still a good amplifier (as I remembered it to be), but it is now an older design and admittedly the world has moved on in comparison. Still nice to finally get to “close the lid” on a build from time-to-time though – it is a good feeling! 🙂

Project files: The BBA3FE

Haven’t really had time to fully complete my BBA3FE project yet, but as I am otherwise happy with the design I might as well release it in case anyone wants to have a play with it 🙂

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The BoSoZ…

When I started to look around for balanced preamp designs some time ago, the BBA3FE wasn’t the only design that turned up. Another candidate was a sort of “predecessor” for it, namely the Pass Balanced Zen Line Stage (aka BoSoZ). I was a little slower getting started on this one so the BBA3FE came first, but a few weeks later inspiration struck and I managed to finish the layouts for both the BoSoZ and the matching PSU as well.

I chose a mono configuration for the amp board to maximize flexibility and minimize board cost. I’ve only made some minor changes to the schematic, but you should be able to see the resemblance to the BBA3FE layout easily. My prototype version uses 27.5mm output caps because I had some I wanted to use, but the “real” version of the board has space for 37.5mm caps as well and is only slightly larger (app. 5mm deeper).

As you can see I’ve actually also made good headway on the mechanicals of the design so what you can see now is really a semi-completed amplifier. Other than the new amp/psu boards I’ve picked components “off-the-shelf”, i.e. input selectors, an output relay board and an aux PSU that I have previously done, so putting it all together wasn’t that hard to do.

I need to pull myself together a little and get the wiring done before it will play music for real, but other than that it’s looking very promising – and the initial sound quality tests definitely match that as well 🙂

Experimenting with the BBA3FE…

Not the most obvious acronym to decode, but it stands for “Balanced Burning Amp 3 Front-End” and it’s the first half of a power amp design that Nelson Pass launched for the ”Burning Amp” festival several years ago. It’s very closely related to the F5 circuit and without the accompanying power stages it’s also well-suited for pre-amp duty. The diyaudio store has been selling PCBs for years, but I’ve never been sufficiently interested to grab one (and the shipping cost and import duty for buying PCBs from the US makes it really expensive to get anyway).

Now, fast forward to a few months ago: For a while I’ve looked for a “real” balanced preamplifier circuit. I have several balanced designs already, but some of them are “cheating” by not being developed for balanced use and that obviously won’t do 😉 I’ve looked at the BA-3 before, but some months ago I did a double-take when I noticed a schematic for a balanced version in this thread (and yes, I know the thread is seven years old…). That circuit was more or less what I was looking for, namely a simple discrete circuit optimised for balanced use, and so I decided to try to make one.

My version is more or less the same as the original, but I decided to save some board space (and create some flexibility) by moving the output capacitors off-board and so they are not shown (but still very much required). The major downside of the circuit is that the input is based on 2SK170/2SJ74 JFETs that are obsolete and near-impossible to get. To add insult to injury, they should ideally be matched to around 8mA Idss which is more or less the most commonly required value – and therefore even harder to find!. However, the article also states that while matching is preferred, it is not essential, and so I managed to find some suitable pairs in my parts drawers.

I’ve only briefly tested the boards and they power up fine but the DC-offset is unstable so the output capacitors are definitely needed. Thermal stability and equilibrium with the bias-current is also something I need to work on (it’s going to require leaving the boards on for a while as far as I can see), but so far it is looking promising. As regular blog-followers will know I am a big fan of the B1 design and I don’t normally need gain, but as there are several reports of the BBA3FE sounding significantly better than the B1 I am obviously quite excited to make progress on this build.

PCB files will be coming eventually, but I made a couple of stupid mistakes in this layout that need to be corrected, and since I was so focused on this being a balanced pre I forgot to make it easy to do the SE-version as well. Translation: I really need to get a v1.1 ready and ordered first 🙂

Meet the BalBUF…

For a while I have been looking for a simple buffer/preamp circuit that could be used with balanced inputs. In general it would be nice to have, but I have a specific project in mind that would need it (no, I am not going to tell you just yet 😀 ). Also, it would have to be compact and would have to operate on existing supplies. An obvious candidate that I have been interested in for a (long) while is a Fully-differential Amplifier (FDA) in the form of the TI OPA1632.

The OPA1632 includes a Nelson Pass patent called SuperSymmetry (SuSy for short) that gives an inherently balanced topology and therefore allows for all combinations of Bal and SE to be used on both inputs and outputs. To supplement the FDA is what’s called an instrumentation amp front end using a dual opamp. This performs input buffering to keep the FDA happy and can add gain if needed.

The OPA1632 isn’t a new IC by any means, but it is still interesting and something I have been fiddling with for a while (actually for years). However, it had remained on the drawing board and as some prototype boards that I for a long time didn’t really dare assemble and test – I didn’t fully understand the concept of an FDA and so I could not really be sure I had the schematic figured out correctly as I was starting from bits and pieces collated from other designs.

When AMB picked up the OPA1632 again for his Alpha24 (A24) and KappaDCX designs then I finally had a very clear schematic to work from and so I decided to dust off the old board designs and see if I could get it to work this time. In comparison to the A24 I have omitted some of the configurable options of the A24 and deleted the last stage that sums the balanced signal back to SE – that would be rather pointless here 🙂 I was also going to break out and use the enable-pin as well, but as AMB reported (here) that it doesn’t really work well as a mute circuit I decided not to bother.

Technically I haven’t actually used the OPA1632 yet, but instead its “industrial” cousin, the THS413x. There were speculation when the ICs were released that these two are actually the same die but just tested and marked as two different parts depending on achieved specs. Even if that isn’t the case (I don’t think it was ever actually confirmed) they chips are pin compatible and close enough in specs that the differences should not matter.

For the front end I used an OPA1642 which is TIs current highest-spec FET input opamp. It sounds great, but just about any dual SOIC opamp should be fine as a substitute – I just happened to have 3 left over from something else.

As the pics show I’ve just built a single prototype for now which I will keep for testing, but I need to build a new pair as well. Now, as mentioned I am not going to reveal exactly what these are going to be used for because there is a still a piece missing, but if everything works then I think this is actually a very important design (or designs I should say because there is a second PCB on the way as well…)

Project files: THAT1646 in stereo…

What is it?
A stereo version of my THAT1646 balanced converter/preamp shown here. I wanted to build a small controller/pre for some active monitors and while the stacked mono boards were probably a good idea in princple, I decided to resurrect the stereo layout instead 🙂

How big are the boards?
The board measure 2.7″ x 1.9″ (app. 69 x 48 mm.).

What is the status of the boards?
There are two board versions which differ only slightly. One is 100% through-hole and basically a stereo version of the mono-board shown earlier. The other has the R4 gain resistor replaced with a 1206 SMD type and mounted on the top of the board (under the IC socket). This means the feedback loop area is much smaller and the routing is a bit neater. Both boards are otherwise the same size and electrically identical. If you want to change the gain after building the through-hole version is probably easier to work with, but otherwise the SMD-version should be the best design. Both boards are labelled as version 1.0 although I’ve only prototyped the SMD-version in stereo.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
As usual, not much. Maybe the THAT IC itself. Mouser has it though, so that should work for most people I guess.

Anything else I need to know?
A few things:

  • Gain: You can tweak the gain of the circuit as you wish using the resistors for the pampas, but remember that the THAT1646 should add 6dB gain on its own when you go from SE to BAL.
  • Opamp selection: You should be able to use pretty much any single opamp here. if you don’t have a favourite already I’d once again recommend that you start with either the OPA134 or the LME49710 and then experiment from there.
  • SMD resistor: If you are using the board version with the SMD gain resistor, remember to solder R4 on the board before you fit the IC sockets (otherwise some swearing may ensue when you discover it… :D)
  • BW limiting capacitors: There is no space on the board for BW-limiting capacitors for the opamp. Not sure why really, but with the opamp only driving a very short trace with a fixed load at the end (the THAT1646) I felt quite sure most opamps will behave. If not, soldering some small ceramics on the bottom of the board should be easy 🙂

Download design files here

Related information:
As usual, RTFD! (= read the f’ing datasheets :D)

Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.

Project files: A bal. driver with the THAT1646

Still busy at work, but being home for (most of) the weekend and I have time to dig in the back catalogue a bit – hope this is useful for someone 🙂

What is it?
A simple SE/BAL line driver board using the THAT1646 line driver IC. This should make it compatible with the DRV134 from TI and the – now obsolete – SSM2142 from AD as well. The board can be used as a pure line driver to feed a balanced input or of course also to bridge two suitable power amps.
The THAT-chip is combined with an on-board opamp, partly to ensure that it is driven by a low-impedance source as per the datasheet recommendation, partly to increase the versatility as the opamp can provide more gain if required.

How big are the boards?
The board measures just 1.6” x 1.9” (app. 41 x 48 mm.) The boards can be placed side-by-side or stacked. I originally had this as a stereo board with two channels on the same board, but decided that the mono-version was probably more versatile overall. If you disagree feel free to let me know 😀

What is the status of the boards?
The board is v1.0. I’ve built a single prototype and tested it (I needed one channel for a test setup) and it sounds fine as far as I can tell. No further sound impressions yet I am afraid.

Does it use any special/expensive/hard-to-find parts?
None. I am not actually aware of a source for the THAT-chip in Europe, but Mouser has them and that should work for most people I guess 🙂

Anything else I need to know?
A few things:

  • Protection circuitry: I’ve omitted the protection circuitry described in the data sheet for the THAT1646, mainly because I only expect to use it in home applications where there is no risk of a phantom power supply being present. If you are using it with PA gear that (potentially) has a phantom power supply on the inputs then you might need to look into this.
  • Grounding: I have connected the ground pin of the output connector on the PCB to GND on the board, which is actually a no-no. Connecting all three pins to the XLR would (potentially) give you “pin 1-problem”.
    As I understand it, the proper way of wiring an XLR is therefore to only connect “hot” and “cold” from the PCB connector to the XLR out connector and then connect  PIN 1 on the XLR connector to the chassis ground via as short a wire as possible.
  • Preamp-mode: Given that the THAT1646 already has an opamp onboard to drive it, if you use 100k-220k input impedance (R1) it should be possible to put a 10k-20k log pot in front of the input capacitor and convert the board (well, two of them…) to a stand-alone preamp with SE in and Balanced out. I haven’t tested this, but I see a couple of potential applications here 🙂
  • Chip substitution: The DRV134 has the same pin connections as the THAT1646. The only thing I can see that makes them different is that the DRV134 data sheet specifies 1uF decoupling caps on the supply pins rather than the 100nF for the THAT1646.
    Note that the DRV134 also has a reputation (at least in some DIY-circles) for sounding pretty unspectacular. I have no personal experience to offer here, so try for yourself if you want 😀

Download design files here

Edit 14th april 2016: Link has been updated to point to the correct file 🙂

Related information:
As usual, RTFD! (= read the f’ing datasheets :D)

Note: Always read the “intro post” for additional important information about my designs.